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深度学习模型中的孪生神经网络原理及应用

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本文将介绍孪生神经网络的组成部分、工作原理以及应用案例,帮助读者更深入了解这种先进的深度学习模型。

关键词:神经网络 、 孪生神经网络 、 相似度

前言

  孪生神经网络是一种先进的深度学习模型,它通过将原始网络和孪生网络结合起来,可以解决图像识别任务中的一些难题。在这篇文章中,我们将介绍孪生神经网络的组成部分、工作原理以及应用案例。希望通过这篇文章,读者可以更深入地了解孪生神经网络的各个方面,从而更好地掌握这种先进的深度学习模型。

组成部分

  孪生神经网络通过将原始网络和孪生网络结合起来。具体来说,孪生神经网络通过孪生技术,将原始网络提取出的特征进行稳定化,使得不同光照、角度、尺寸的图像中提取出的特征更加稳定,从而提高了图像识别的准确性。同时,孪生神经网络也提高了模型的可解释性,通过孪生技术,可以将原始网络和孪生网络的参数分开计算,使得用户的对模型的解释更加容易和理解。

原始网络:

  原始网络主要负责从输入的图像中提取特征。原始网络通常包含多个卷积层和池化层,可以提取出图像中的局部特征。
例如,我们可以使用经典的resnet系列的网络:

import torch
from torch import Tensor
import torch.nn as nn
from typing import Type, Any, Callable, Union, List, Optional


def conv3x3(in_planes: int, out_planes: int, stride: int = 1, groups: int = 1, dilation: int = 1) -> nn.Conv2d:
    """3x3 convolution with padding"""
    return nn.Conv2d(in_planes, out_planes, kernel_size=3, stride=stride,
                     padding=dilation, groups=groups, bias=False, dilation=dilation)


def conv1x1(in_planes: int, out_planes: int, stride: int = 1) -> nn.Conv2d:
    """1x1 convolution"""
    return nn.Conv2d(in_planes, out_planes, kernel_size=1, stride=stride, bias=False)


class BasicBlock(nn.Module):
    expansion: int = 1

    def __init__(
        self,
        inplanes: int,
        planes: int,
        stride: int = 1,
        downsample: Optional[nn.Module] = None,
        groups: int = 1,
        base_width: int = 64,
        dilation: int = 1,
        norm_layer: Optional[Callable[..., nn.Module]] = None
    ) -> None:
        super(BasicBlock, self).__init__()
        if norm_layer is None:
            norm_layer = nn.BatchNorm2d
        if groups != 1 or base_width != 64:
            raise ValueError('BasicBlock only supports groups=1 and base_width=64')
        if dilation > 1:
            raise NotImplementedError("Dilation > 1 not supported in BasicBlock")
        # Both self.conv1 and self.downsample layers downsample the input when stride != 1
        self.conv1 = conv3x3(inplanes, planes, stride)
        self.bn1 = norm_layer(planes)
        self.relu = nn.ReLU(inplace=True)
        self.conv2 = conv3x3(planes, planes)
        self.bn2 = norm_layer(planes)
        self.downsample = downsample
        self.stride = stride

    def forward(self, x: Tensor) -> Tensor:
        identity = x

        out = self.conv1(x)
        out = self.bn1(out)
        out = self.relu(out)

        out = self.conv2(out)
        out = self.bn2(out)

        if self.downsample is not None:
            identity = self.downsample(x)

        out += identity
        out = self.relu(out)

        return out


class Bottleneck(nn.Module):
    expansion: int = 4

    def __init__(
        self,
        inplanes: int,
        planes: int,
        stride: int = 1,
        downsample: Optional[nn.Module] = None,
        groups: int = 1,
        base_width: int = 64,
        dilation: int = 1,
        norm_layer: Optional[Callable[..., nn.Module]] = None
    ) -> None:
        super(Bottleneck, self).__init__()
        if norm_layer is None:
            norm_layer = nn.BatchNorm2d
        width = int(planes * (base_width / 64.)) * groups
        # Both self.conv2 and self.downsample layers downsample the input when stride != 1
        self.conv1 = conv1x1(inplanes, width)
        self.bn1 = norm_layer(width)
        self.conv2 = conv3x3(width, width, stride, groups, dilation)
        self.bn2 = norm_layer(width)
        self.conv3 = conv1x1(width, planes * self.expansion)
        self.bn3 = norm_layer(planes * self.expansion)
        self.relu = nn.ReLU(inplace=True)
        self.downsample = downsample
        self.stride = stride

    def forward(self, x: Tensor) -> Tensor:
        identity = x

        out = self.conv1(x)
        out = self.bn1(out)
        out = self.relu(out)

        out = self.conv2(out)
        out = self.bn2(out)
        out = self.relu(out)

        out = self.conv3(out)
        out = self.bn3(out)

        if self.downsample is not None:
            identity = self.downsample(x)

        out += identity
        out = self.relu(out)

        return out


class ResNet(nn.Module):

    def __init__(
        self,
        block: Type[Union[BasicBlock, Bottleneck]],
        layers: List[int],
        num_classes: int = 1000,
        zero_init_residual: bool = False,
        groups: int = 1,
        width_per_group: int = 64,
        replace_stride_with_dilation: Optional[List[bool]] = None,
        norm_layer: Optional[Callable[..., nn.Module]] = None
    ) -> None:
        super(ResNet, self).__init__()
        if norm_layer is None:
            norm_layer = nn.BatchNorm2d
        self._norm_layer = norm_layer

        self.inplanes = 64
        self.dilation = 1
        if replace_stride_with_dilation is None:
            # each element in the tuple indicates if we should replace
            # the 2x2 stride with a dilated convolution instead
            replace_stride_with_dilation = [False, False, False]
        if len(replace_stride_with_dilation) != 3:
            raise ValueError("replace_stride_with_dilation should be None "
                             "or a 3-element tuple, got {}".format(replace_stride_with_dilation))
        self.groups = groups
        self.base_width = width_per_group
        self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(3, self.inplanes, kernel_size=7, stride=2, padding=3,
                               bias=False)
        self.bn1 = norm_layer(self.inplanes)
        self.relu = nn.ReLU(inplace=True)
        self.maxpool = nn.MaxPool2d(kernel_size=3, stride=2, padding=1)
        self.layer1 = self._make_layer(block, 64, layers[0])
        self.layer2 = self._make_layer(block, 128, layers[1], stride=2,
                                       dilate=replace_stride_with_dilation[0])
        self.layer3 = self._make_layer(block, 256, layers[2], stride=2,
                                       dilate=replace_stride_with_dilation[1])
        self.layer4 = self._make_layer(block, 512, layers[3], stride=2,
                                       dilate=replace_stride_with_dilation[2])
        self.avgpool = nn.AdaptiveAvgPool2d((1, 1))
        self.fc = nn.Linear(512 * block.expansion, num_classes)

        for m in self.modules():
            if isinstance(m, nn.Conv2d):
                nn.init.kaiming_normal_(m.weight, mode='fan_out', nonlinearity='relu')
            elif isinstance(m, (nn.BatchNorm2d, nn.GroupNorm)):
                nn.init.constant_(m.weight, 1)
                nn.init.constant_(m.bias, 0)

        # Zero-initialize the last BN in each residual branch,
        # so that the residual branch starts with zeros, and each residual block behaves like an identity.
        # This improves the model by 0.2~0.3% according to https://arxiv.org/abs/1706.02677
        if zero_init_residual:
            for m in self.modules():
                if isinstance(m, Bottleneck):
                    nn.init.constant_(m.bn3.weight, 0)  # type: ignore[arg-type]
                elif isinstance(m, BasicBlock):
                    nn.init.constant_(m.bn2.weight, 0)  # type: ignore[arg-type]

    def _make_layer(self, block: Type[Union[BasicBlock, Bottleneck]], planes: int, blocks: int,
                    stride: int = 1, dilate: bool = False) -> nn.Sequential:
        norm_layer = self._norm_layer
        downsample = None
        previous_dilation = self.dilation
        if dilate:
            self.dilation *= stride
            stride = 1
        if stride != 1 or self.inplanes != planes * block.expansion:
            downsample = nn.Sequential(
                conv1x1(self.inplanes, planes * block.expansion, stride),
                norm_layer(planes * block.expansion),
            )

        layers = []
        layers.append(block(self.inplanes, planes, stride, downsample, self.groups,
                            self.base_width, previous_dilation, norm_layer))
        self.inplanes = planes * block.expansion
        for _ in range(1, blocks):
            layers.append(block(self.inplanes, planes, groups=self.groups,
                                base_width=self.base_width, dilation=self.dilation,
                                norm_layer=norm_layer))

        return nn.Sequential(*layers)

    def _forward_impl(self, x: Tensor) -> Tensor:
        # See note [TorchScript super()]
        x = self.conv1(x)
        x = self.bn1(x)
        x = self.relu(x)
        x = self.maxpool(x)

        x = self.layer1(x)
        x = self.layer2(x)
        x = self.layer3(x)
        x = self.layer4(x)

        x = self.avgpool(x)
        x = torch.flatten(x, 1)
        # x = self.fc(x)

        return x

    def forward(self, x: Tensor) -> Tensor:
        return self._forward_impl(x)


def _resnet(
    arch: str,
    block: Type[Union[BasicBlock, Bottleneck]],
    layers: List[int],
    pretrained: bool,
    progress: bool,
    **kwargs: Any
) -> ResNet:
    model = ResNet(block, layers, **kwargs)
    return model


def resnet18(pretrained: bool = False, progress: bool = True, **kwargs: Any) -> ResNet:
    r"""ResNet-18 model from
    `"Deep Residual Learning for Image Recognition" <https://arxiv.org/pdf/1512.03385.pdf>`_.

    Args:
        pretrained (bool): If True, returns a model pre-trained on ImageNet
        progress (bool): If True, displays a progress bar of the download to stderr
    """
    return _resnet('resnet18', BasicBlock, [2, 2, 2, 2], pretrained, progress,
                   **kwargs)


def resnet34(pretrained: bool = False, progress: bool = True, **kwargs: Any) -> ResNet:
    r"""ResNet-34 model from
    `"Deep Residual Learning for Image Recognition" <https://arxiv.org/pdf/1512.03385.pdf>`_.

    Args:
        pretrained (bool): If True, returns a model pre-trained on ImageNet
        progress (bool): If True, displays a progress bar of the download to stderr
    """
    return _resnet('resnet34', BasicBlock, [3, 4, 6, 3], pretrained, progress,
                   **kwargs)


def resnet50(pretrained: bool = False, progress: bool = True, **kwargs: Any) -> ResNet:
    r"""ResNet-50 model from
    `"Deep Residual Learning for Image Recognition" <https://arxiv.org/pdf/1512.03385.pdf>`_.

    Args:
        pretrained (bool): If True, returns a model pre-trained on ImageNet
        progress (bool): If True, displays a progress bar of the download to stderr
    """
    return _resnet('resnet50', Bottleneck, [3, 4, 6, 3], pretrained, progress,
                   **kwargs)

孪生网络&输出层:

  孪生网络主要负责对原始网络提取出的特征进行孪生。孪生网络通常也包含多个卷积层和池化层,但其参数与原始网络不同,以防止对原始网络的特征进行混淆。孪生网络还包括一个全连接层,用于将原始网络的特征与输出结果相连接。

  输出层是孪生神经网络的最后一层,用于输出模型的预测结果。输出层的参数通常与原始网络和孪生网络不同,以防止对输出结果进行混淆。

import torch
import torch.nn as nn
from resnet import resnet50


resnet50 = resnet50(pretrained=False)
resnet = resnet50.features

class SiameseNetwork(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self, input_shape):
        super(SiameseNetwork, self).__init__()
        self.resnet = resnet

        self.fc = nn.Sequential(
            nn.Linear(2048, 1023),
            nn.ReLU(inplace=True),
            nn.Dropout(),
            nn.Linear(1023, 1))


    def forward_once(self, x):
        output = self.resnet(x)
        output = torch.flatten(output, 1)
        return output

    def forward(self, input1, input2):

        output1 = self.forward_once(input1)
        output2 = self.forward_once(input2)
        output = output1 - output2
        output = self.fc(output)
        return output

  在孪生神经网络中,原始网络和孪生网络的参数是分开计算的。具体来说,孪生网络的参数是在训练过程中,通过对原始网络进行反向传播,从原始网络的输出结果中计算得出的。这样可以确保孪生网络对原始网络的特征进行稳定化处理,从而提高了模型的准确性和稳定性。

工作原理

孪生神经网络是一种深度学习模型,它通过将原始网络和孪生网络结合起来,可以解决图像识别任务中的一些难题。孪生神经网络的工作原理可以概括为以下几个步骤:

  1. 输入数据:孪生神经网络的输入是一张图片,通常是一个三维的张量,其中每个元素代表图片中的一个像素。
  2. 原始网络提取特征:原始网络是孪生神经网络中的第一个网络,它主要负责从输入的图片中提取特征。原始网络通常包含多个卷积层和池化层,可以提取出图片中的局部特征。
  3. 孪生网络稳定特征:孪生网络是孪生神经网络中的第二个网络,它主要负责对原始网络提取出的特征进行稳定化处理。孪生网络通常也包含多个卷积层和池化层,但其参数与原始网络不同,以防止对原始网络的特征进行混淆。孪生网络还包括一个全连接层,用于将原始网络的特征与输出结果相连接。
  4. 孪生网络输出结果:孪生网络通过全连接层将原始网络的特征稳定化处理后,输出一个二维的张量,这个张量代表输入图片的特征向量。
  5. 输出网络输出结果:孪生神经网络的最后一层通常是输出层,它主要负责将孪生网络输出的特征向量转换为输出结果。输出层的参数与原始网络和孪生网络不同,以防止对输出结果进行混淆。
  6. 模型训练:孪生神经网络的训练过程是通过反向传播算法完成的。在训练过程中,孪生神经网络的输出结果与真实标签进行比较,通过误差函数来指导模型的调整,使得模型输出的结果更加准确。

通过上述工作原理,孪生神经网络可以将输入图片中的特征提取并稳定化,从而提高了图像识别模型的准确性和稳定性。

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