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LaTeX数学公式符号大全及编辑技巧

释放双眼,带上耳机,听听看~!
本文整理了丰富的LaTeX数学公式编写过程中涉及到的各种符号,以及编辑数学公式的两种表现形式和常用的希腊字母、希伯来字母等内容,旨在帮助读者更好地理解LaTeX数学公式的编写和编辑技巧。

公众号:尤而小屋
作者:Peter
编辑:Peter

大家好,我是Peter~

LaTeX是一种标记语言,主要用于创建高质量的学术文档,特别是数学、物理和计算机科学领域的文档。它基于TeX排版系统,由美国数学家Donald E. Knuth开发。在LaTeX中,你可以轻松地编写复杂的数学公式,并控制文档的布局和样式。

本文整理了丰富的数学公式编写过程中涉及到的的各种符号,建议收藏直接使用~

两种方式

在LaTeX中编辑数学公式的两种表现形式:

  • 行内:使用一对$公式部分$即可,比如勾股定理的公式:$a^2 +b^2=c^2$
  • 行外:使用两对$$公式部分$$,勾股定理$$a^2 +b^2=c^2$$单独占据一行

常用希腊字母 Greek alphabet

希腊字母是希腊语所使用的字母,也广泛用于数学、物理、生物、化学、天文等学科。它是世界上最早拥有表示元音音位的字母的书写系统

序号 小写 LaTeX 读音 序号 大写 LaTeX 读音
1 α alpha /ˈælfə/ 22 σ sigma /ˈsɪɡmə/
2 β beta /ˈbiːtə/, US: /ˈbeɪtə/ 23 ς varsigma /ˈsɪɡmə/
3 γ gamma /ˈɡæmə/ 24 τ tau /taʊ, tɔː/
4 δ delta /ˈdɛltə/ 25 υ upsilon /ˈʌpsɪlɒn/
5 ϵ epsilon /ˈɛpsɪlɒn/ 26 ϕ phi /faɪ/
6 ε varepsilon /ˈɛpsɪlɒn/ 27 φ varphi /faɪ/
7 ζ zeta /ˈzeɪtə/ 28 χ chi /kaɪ/
8 η eta /ˈeɪtə/ 29 ψ psi /psaɪ/
9 θ theta /ˈθiːtə/ 30 ω omega /oʊˈmeɪɡə/
10 ϑ vartheta /ˈθiːtə/ 31 Γ Gamma /ˈɡæmə/
11 ι iota /aɪˈoʊtə/ 32 Δ Delta /ˈdɛltə/
12 κ kappa /ˈkæpə/ 33 Θ Theta /ˈθiːtə/
13 λ lambda /ˈlæmdə/ 34 Λ Lambda /ˈlæmdə/
14 μ mu /mjuː/ 35 Ξ Xi /zaɪ, ksaɪ/
15 ν nu /njuː/ 36 Π Pi /paɪ/
16 ξ xi /zaɪ, ksaɪ/ 37 Σ Sigma /ˈsɪɡmə/
17 o o /ˈɒmɪkrɒn/ 38 Υ Upsilon /ˈʌpsɪlɒn/
18 π pi /paɪ/ 39 Φ Phi /faɪ/
19 ϖ varpi /paɪ/ 40 Ψ Psi /psaɪ/
20 ρ rho /roʊ/ 41 Ω Omega /oʊˈmeɪɡə/
21 ϱ varrho /roʊ/

常用希伯来字母Hebrew alphabet

序号 图标 LaTeX 英文
1 aleph aleph
2 beth beth
3 gimel gimel
4 daleth daleth

在Typora中使用markdown编写LaTex符号的效果:

π、ζ、π、ϱ、ℵpi、zeta、pi、varrho、aleph

源码为:

$pi、zeta、pi、varrho、aleph$   # 一对$$

二元运算符 Binary operations

常用的二元运算符

序号 图标 LaTeX 序号 图标 LaTeX
1 + + 20 bullet
2 21 oplus
3 × times 22 ominus
4 ÷div div (在physics扩展开启状态下为) 23 odot
5 ± pm 24 oslash
6 mp 25 otimes
7 triangleleft 26 bigcirc
8 triangleright 27 diamond
9 cdot 28 uplus
10 setminus 29 bigtriangleup
11 star 30 bigtriangledown
12 ast 31 lhd
13 cup 32 rhd
14 cap 33 unlhd
15 sqcup 34 unrhd
16 sqcap 35 ⨿ amalg
17 vee 36 wr
18 wedge 37 dagger
19 circ 38 ddagger

二元关系符 Binary relations

常见的二元关系符:

序号 图标 LaTeX 序号 图标 LaTeX
1 = = 49 gneq
2 ne 50 geqq
3 neq 51 ngeq
4 equiv 52 ngeqq
5 notequiv 53 gneqq
6 doteq 54 gvertneqq
7 doteqdot 55 lessgtr
8 =dffstackrel{mathrm{dff}}{=} stackrel{mathrm{dff}}{=} 56 lesseqgtr
9 := := 57 lesseqqgtr
10 sim 58 gtrless
11 nsim 59 gtreqless
12 backsim 60 gtreqqless
13 thicksim 61 leqslant
14 simeq 62 nleqslant
15 backsimeq 63 eqslantless
16 eqsim 64 geqslant
17 cong 65 ngeqslant
18 ncong 66 eqslantgtr
19 approx 67 lesssim
20 thickapprox 68 lnsim
21 approxeq 69 lessapprox
22 asymp 70 lnapprox
23 propto 71 gtrsim
24 varpropto 72 gnsim
25 << /td> < 73 gtrapprox
26 nless 74 gnapprox
27 ll 75 prec
28 ≪̸ notll 76 nprec
29 lll 77 preceq
30 ⋘̸ notlll 78 npreceq
31 lessdot 79 precneqq
32 80 succ
33 ngtr 81 nsucc
34 gg 82 succeq
35 ≫̸ notgg 83 nsucceq
36 ggg 84 succneqq
37 ⋙̸ notggg 85 preccurlyeq
38 gtrdot 86 curlyeqprec
39 le 87 succcurlyeq
40 leq 88 curlyeqsucc
41 lneq 89 precsim
42 leqq 90 precnsim
43 nleq 91 precapprox
44 nleqq 92 precnapprox
45 lneqq 93 succsim
46 lvertneqq 94 succnsim
47 ge 95 succapprox
48 geq 96 succnapprox

几何关系符号Geometric symbols

常见的几何关系符号:

序号 图标 LaTeX 序号 图标 LaTeX
1 parallel 14 lozenge
2 nparallel 15 blacklozenge
3 shortparallel 16 bigstar
4 nshortparallel 17 bigcirc
5 perp 18 triangle
6 angle 19 bigtriangleup
7 sphericalangle 20 bigtriangledown
8 measuredangle 21 vartriangle
9 45∘ 45^circ 22 triangledown
10 Box 23 blacktriangle
11 blacksquare 24 blacktriangledown
12 diamond 25 blacktriangleleft
13 Diamond lozenge 26 blacktriangleright

逻辑符号 Logic symbols

常用的逻辑关系运算符:

序号 图标 LaTeX 序号 图标 LaTeX
1 forall 20 ¬ neg
2 exists 21 notoperatorname{R}
3 nexists 22 bot
4 therefore 23 top
5 because 24 vdash
6 & And 25 dashv
7 lor 26 vDash
8 vee 27 Vdash
9 curlyvee 28 models
10 bigvee 29 Vvdash
11 land 30 nvdash
12 wedge 31 nVdash
13 curlywedge 32 nvDash
14 bigwedge 33 nVDash
15 bar{q} 34 ulcorner
16 abc¯ bar{abc} 35 urcorner
17 q― overline{q} 36 llcorner
18 abc― overline{abc} 37 lrcorner
19 ¬ lnot

集合Sets

集合相关的符号:空集、并集、子集、包含与被包含、存在于等各种符号

序号 图标 LaTeX 序号 图标 LaTeX
1 {} {} 23 sqsubset
2 emptyset 24 supset
3 varnothing 25 Supset
4 in 26 sqsupset
5 notin 27 subseteq
6 ni 28 nsubseteq
7 cap 29 subsetneq
8 Cap 30 varsubsetneq
9 sqcap 31 sqsubseteq
10 bigcap 32 supseteq
11 cup 33 nsupseteq
12 Cup 34 supsetneq
13 sqcup 35 varsupsetneq
14 bigcup 36 sqsupseteq
15 bigsqcup 37 subseteqq
16 uplus 38 nsubseteqq
17 biguplus 39 subsetneqq
18 setminus 40 varsubsetneqq
19 smallsetminus 41 supseteqq
20 × times 42 nsupseteqq
21 subset 43 supsetneqq
22 Subset 44 varsupsetneqq

箭头Arrows

和箭头相关的各种符号:

序号 图标 LaTeX 序号 图标 LaTeX
1 Rrightarrow 36 longmapsto
2 Lleftarrow 37 rightharpoonup
3 Rightarrow 38 rightharpoondown
4 nRightarrow 39 leftharpoonup
5 Longrightarrow 40 leftharpoondown
6 implies 41 upharpoonleft
7 Leftarrow 42 upharpoonright
8 nLeftarrow 43 downharpoonleft
9 Longleftarrow 44 downharpoonright
10 Leftrightarrow 45 rightleftharpoons
11 nLeftrightarrow 46 leftrightharpoons
12 Longleftrightarrow 47 curvearrowleft
13 iff 48 circlearrowleft
14 Uparrow 49 Lsh
15 Downarrow 50 upuparrows
16 Updownarrow 51 rightrightarrows
17 rightarrow 52 rightleftarrows
18 to 53 rightarrowtail
19 nrightarrow 54 looparrowright
20 longrightarrow 55 curvearrowright
21 leftarrow 56 circlearrowright
22 gets 57 Rsh
23 nleftarrow 58 downdownarrows
24 longleftarrow 59 leftleftarrows
25 leftrightarrow 60 leftrightarrows
26 nleftrightarrow 61 leftarrowtail
27 longleftrightarrow 62 looparrowleft
28 uparrow 63 hookrightarrow
29 downarrow 64 hookleftarrow
30 updownarrow 65 multimap
31 nearrow 66 leftrightsquigarrow
32 swarrow 67 rightsquigarrow
33 nwarrow 68 twoheadrightarrow
34 searrow 69 twoheadleftarrow
35 mapsto

特殊关系符号

其他少见的特殊符号:

序号 图标 LaTeX 序号 图标 LaTeX
1 infty 33 flat
2 aleph 34 natural
3 complement 35 sharp
4 backepsilon 36 diagup
5 ð eth 37 diagdown
6 Finv 38 centerdot
7 hbar 39 ltimes
8 Im Im 40 rtimes
9 ı imath 41 leftthreetimes
10 ȷ jmath 42 rightthreetimes
11 𝕜k Bbbk 43 eqcirc
12 ell 44 circeq
13 mho 45 triangleq
14 wp 46 bumpeq
15 Re Re 47 Bumpeq
16 circledS 48 doteqdot
17 ⨿ amalg 49 risingdotseq
18 % % 50 fallingdotseq
19 dagger 51 intercal
20 ddagger 52 barwedge
21 ldots 53 veebar
22 cdots 54 doublebarwedge
23 ⌣smile smile 55 between
24 ⌢frown frown 56 pitchfork
25 wr 57 vartriangleleft
26 triangleleft 58 ntriangleleft
27 triangleright 59 vartriangleright
28 diamondsuit 60 ntriangleright
29 heartsuit 61 trianglelefteq
30 clubsuit 62 ntrianglelefteq
31 spadesuit 63 trianglerighteq
32 Game 64 ntrianglerighteq

下面介绍和数学运算相关的符号:

分数Fractions

编号 类型 样式 LaTeX
1 分数 Fractions 24x=0.5xor24x=0.5xfrac{2}{4}x=0.5x or {2 over 4}x=0.5x frac{2}{4}x=0.5x or {2 over 4}x=0.5x
2 小型分数 Small fractions (force textstyle) 24x=0.5xtfrac{2}{4}x = 0.5x tfrac{2}{4}x = 0.5x
3 大型分数(不嵌套) Large (normal) fractions (force displaystyle) 24=0.52c+2d+24=adfrac{2}{4} = 0.5 qquad dfrac{2}{c + dfrac{2}{d + dfrac{2}{4}}} = a dfrac{2}{4} = 0.5 qquad dfrac{2}{c + dfrac{2}{d + dfrac{2}{4}}} = a
4 大型分数(嵌套) Large (nested) fractions 2c+2d+24=acfrac{2}{c + cfrac{2}{d + cfrac{2}{4}}} = a cfrac{2}{c + cfrac{2}{d + cfrac{2}{4}}} = a
5 约分线的使用 Cancellations in fractions x1+yy=x2cfrac{x}{1 + cfrac{cancel{y}}{cancel{y}}} = cfrac{x}{2} cfrac{x}{1 + cfrac{cancel{y}}{cancel{y}}} = cfrac{x}{2}

标准数值函数 Standard numerical functions

编号 样式 LaTeX
1 exp⁡ab=ab,exp⁡b=eb,10mexp_a b = a^b, exp b = e^b, 10^m exp_a b = a^b, exp b = e^b, 10^m
2 ln⁡c,lg⁡d=log⁡e,log⁡10fln c, lg d = log e, log_{10} f ln c, lg d = log e, log_{10} f
3 sin⁡a,cos⁡b,tan⁡c,cot⁡d,sec⁡e,csc⁡fsin a, cos b, tan c, cot d, sec e, csc f sin a, cos b, tan c, cot d, sec e, csc f
4 arcsin⁡a,arccos⁡b,arctan⁡carcsin a, arccos b, arctan c arcsin a, arccos b, arctan c
5 arccot⁡d,arcsec⁡e,arccsc⁡foperatorname{arccot} d, operatorname{arcsec} e, operatorname{arccsc} f operatorname{arccot} d, operatorname{arcsec} e, operatorname{arccsc} f
6 sinh⁡a,cosh⁡b,tanh⁡c,coth⁡dsinh a, cosh b, tanh c, coth d sinh a, cosh b, tanh c, coth d
7 sh⁡k,ch⁡l,th⁡m,coth⁡noperatorname{sh}k, operatorname{ch}l, operatorname{th}m, operatorname{coth}n operatorname{sh}k, operatorname{ch}l, operatorname{th}m, operatorname{coth}n
8 argsh⁡o,argch⁡p,argth⁡qoperatorname{argsh}o, operatorname{argch}p, operatorname{argth}q operatorname{argsh}o, operatorname{argch}p, operatorname{argth}q
9 sgn⁡r,∣s∣operatorname{sgn}r, leftvert s rightvert operatorname{sgn}r, leftvert s rightvert
10 min⁡(x,y),max⁡(x,y)min(x,y), max(x,y) min(x,y), max(x,y)

根式符号 Radicals

编号 样式 LaTeX
1 4sqrt 4 sqrt 4
2 √surd surd
3 πsqrt{pi} sqrt{pi}
4 πnsqrt[n]{pi} sqrt[n]{pi}
5 x3+y323sqrt[3]{frac{x^3+y^3}{2}} sqrt[3]{frac{x^3+y^3}{2}}

微分和导数 Differentials and derivatives

编号 样式 LaTeX
1 dt,dt,∂t,∇ψ dt, mathrm{d}t, partial t, nablapsi
2 dy/dx,dy/dx,dydx,dydx,∂2∂x1∂x2ydy/dx, mathrm{d}y/mathrm{d}x, frac{dy}{dx}, frac{mathrm{d}y}{mathrm{d}x}, frac{partial^2}{partial x_1partial x_2}y dy/dx, mathrm{d}y/mathrm{d}x, frac{dy}{dx}, frac{mathrm{d}y}{mathrm{d}x}, frac{partial^2}{partial x_1partial x_2}y
3 ′,‵,f′,f′,f′′,f(3),y˙,y¨prime, backprime, f^prime, f’, f”, f^{(3)}, dot y, ddot y prime, backprime, f^prime, f’, f”, f^{(3)}, dot y, ddot y

同余与模算术 Modular arithmetic

编号 样式 LaTeX
1 sk≡0(modm)s_k equiv 0 pmod{m} s_k equiv 0 pmod{m}
2 a mod ba bmod b a bmod b
3 gcd⁡(m,n),lcm⁡(m,n)gcd(m, n), operatorname{lcm}(m, n) gcd(m, n), operatorname{lcm}(m, n)
4 ∣,∤,∣,∤mid, nmid, shortmid, nshortmid mid, nmid, shortmid, nshortmid

极限 Limits

编号 样式 LaTeX
1 lim⁡n→∞xnlim_{n to infty}x_n lim_{n to infty}x_n
2 lim⁡n→∞xntextstyle lim_{n to infty}x_n textstyle lim_{n to infty}x_n

界限与投影 Bounds and Projections

编号 样式 LaTeX
1 min⁡x,max⁡y,inf⁡s,sup⁡tmin x, max y, inf s, sup t min x, max y, inf s, sup t
2 lim⁡u,lim inf⁡v,lim sup⁡wlim u, liminf v, limsup w lim u, liminf v, limsup w
3 dim⁡p,deg⁡q,det⁡m,ker⁡ϕdim p, deg q, det m, kerphi dim p, deg q, det m, kerphi
4 Pr⁡j,hom⁡l,∥z∥,arg⁡zPr j, hom l, lVert z rVert, arg z Pr j, hom l, lVert z rVert, arg z

积分 Integral

编号 样式 LaTeX
1 ∫13e3/xx2 dxintlimits_{1}^{3}frac{e^3/x}{x^2}, dx intlimits_{1}^{3}frac{e^3/x}{x^2}, dx
2 ∫13e3/xx2 dxint_{1}^{3}frac{e^3/x}{x^2}, dx int_{1}^{3}frac{e^3/x}{x^2}, dx
3 ∫−NNexdxtextstyle intlimits_{-N}^{N} e^x dx textstyle intlimits_{-N}^{N} e^x dx
4 ∫−NNexdxtextstyle int_{-N}^{N} e^x dx textstyle int_{-N}^{N} e^x dx
5 ∬Ddx dyiintlimits_D dx,dy iintlimits_D dx,dy
6 ∭Edx dy dziiintlimits_E dx,dy,dz iiintlimits_E dx,dy,dz
7 iiiintlimits_F dx,dy,dz,dt iiiintlimits_F dx,dy,dz,dt
8 ∫(x,y)∈Cx3 dx+4y2 dyint_{(x,y)in C} x^3, dx + 4y^2, dy int_{(x,y)in C} x^3, dx + 4y^2, dy
9 ∮(x,y)∈Cx3 dx+4y2 dyoint_{(x,y)in C} x^3, dx + 4y^2, dy oint_{(x,y)in C} x^3, dx + 4y^2, dy
10 unicode8751unicodex222FCunicode{8751} unicode{x222F}_C unicode{8751} unicode{x222F}_C
11 unicode8752unicodex2230Cunicode{8752} unicode{x2230}_C unicode{8752} unicode{x2230}_C
12 unicode8753unicodex2231cunicode{8753} unicode{x2231}_c unicode{8753} unicode{x2231}_c
13 unicode8754unicodex2232cunicode{8754} unicode{x2232}_c unicode{8754} unicode{x2232}_c
14 unicode8755unicodex2233cunicode{8755} unicode{x2233}_c unicode{8755} unicode{x2233}_c

最后3组图标的区别在于箭头的方向:

LaTeX数学公式符号大全及编辑技巧

其他运算符号operators

编号 类别 样式 LaTeX
1 求和 Summation ∑absum_{a}^{b} sum_{a}^{b}
2 求和 Summation ∑abtextstyle sum_{a}^{b} textstyle sum_{a}^{b}
3 连乘积 Product ∏abprod_{a}^{b} prod_{a}^{b}
4 连乘积 Product ∏abtextstyle prod_{a}^{b} textstyle prod_{a}^{b}
5 余积 Coproduct ∐abcoprod_{a}^{b} coprod_{a}^{b}
6 余积 Coproduct ∐abtextstyle coprod_{a}^{b} textstyle coprod_{a}^{b}
7 并集 Union ⋃abbigcup_{a}^{b} bigcup_{a}^{b}
8 并集 Union ⋃abtextstyle bigcup_{a}^{b} textstyle bigcup_{a}^{b}
9 交集 Intersection ⋂abbigcap_{a}^{b} bigcap_{a}^{b}
10 交集 Intersection ⋂abtextstyle bigcap_{a}^{b} textstyle bigcap_{a}^{b}
11 析取 Disjunction ⋁abbigvee_{a}^{b} bigvee_{a}^{b}
12 析取 Disjunction ⋁abtextstyle bigvee_{a}^{b} textstyle bigvee_{a}^{b}
13 合取 Conjunction ⋀abbigwedge_{a}^{b} bigwedge_{a}^{b}
14 合取 Conjunction ⋀abtextstyle bigwedge_{a}^{b} textstyle bigwedge_{a}^{b}

上下标Sub & Super

编号 类型 样式 代码
1 上标 Superscript a2,ax+3a^2, a^{x+3} a^2, a^{x+3}
2 下标 Subscript a2a_2 a_2
3 组合1 Grouping 1030a2+210^{30} a^{2+2} 10^{30} a^{2+2}
4 组合2 Grouping ai,jbf′a_{i,j} b_{f’} a_{i,j} b_{f’}
5 上下标混合1 Combining sub & super x23x_2^3 x_2^3
6 上下标混合2 Combining sub & super x23{x_2}^3 {x_2}^3
7 上标的上标 Super super 1010810^{10^{8}} 10^{10^{8}}
8 混合标识1 Preceding and/or additional sub & super sideset1234Xabsideset{_1^2}{_3^4}X_a^b sideset{_1^2}{_3^4}X_a^b
9 混合标识2 Preceding and/or additional sub & super 12!Ω34{}_1^2!Omega_3^4 {}_1^2!Omega_3^4
10 顶标底标1 Stacking ωαoverset{alpha}{omega} overset{alpha}{omega}
11 顶标底标2 Stacking ωαunderset{alpha}{omega} underset{alpha}{omega}
12 顶标底标3 Stacking ωγαoverset{alpha}{underset{gamma}{omega}} overset{alpha}{underset{gamma}{omega}}
13 顶标底标4 Stacking ωαstackrel{alpha}{omega} stackrel{alpha}{omega}
14 导数1 Derivatives x′,y′′,f′,f′′x’, y”, f’, f” x’, y”, f’, f”
15 导数2 Derivatives x′,y′′x^prime, y^{primeprime} x^prime, y^{primeprime}
16 导数 Derivative dots x˙,x¨dot{x}, ddot{x} dot{x}, ddot{x}
17 下划线、上划线与向量1 Underlines, overlines, vectors a^ bˉ c⃗hat a bar b vec c hat a bar b vec c
18 下划线、上划线与向量2 Underlines, overlines, vectors ab→ cd← def^overrightarrow{a b} overleftarrow{c d} widehat{d e f} overrightarrow{a b} overleftarrow{c d} widehat{d e f}
19 下划线、上划线与向量3 Underlines, overlines, vectors ghi‾ jkl‾overline{g h i} underline{j k l} overline{g h i} underline{j k l}
20 弧度 Arc (workaround) AB⌢overset{frown} {AB} overset{frown} {AB}
21 箭头 Arrows A←n+μ−1B→Tn±i−1CA xleftarrow{n+mu-1} B xrightarrow[T]{npm i-1} C A xleftarrow{n+mu-1} B xrightarrow[T]{npm i-1} C
22 大括号 Overbraces 1+2+⋯+100⏞5050overbrace{ 1+2+cdots+100 }^{5050} overbrace{ 1+2+cdots+100 }^{5050}
23 底部大括号 Underbraces a+b+⋯+z⏟26underbrace{ a+b+cdots+z }_{26} underbrace{ a+b+cdots+z }_{26}
24 求和运算 Sum ∑k=1Nk2sum_{k=1}^N k^2 sum_{k=1}^N k^2
25 文本模式下的求和运算 Sum (force textstyle) ∑k=1Nk2textstyle sum_{k=1}^N k^2 textstyle sum_{k=1}^N k^2
26 分式中的求和运算1 Sum in a fraction (default textstyle) ∑k=1Nk2afrac{sum_{k=1}^N k^2}{a} frac{sum_{k=1}^N k^2}{a}
27 分式中的求和运算2 Sum in a fraction (force displaystyle) ∑k=1Nk2afrac{displaystyle sum_{k=1}^N k^2}{a} frac{displaystyle sum_{k=1}^N k^2}{a}
28 分式中的求和运算3 Sum in a fraction (alternative limits style) ∑Nk=1k2afrac{sumlimits{N}_{k=1} k^2}{a} frac{sumlimits{N}_{k=1} k^2}{a}
29 乘积运算 Product ∏i=1Nxiprod_{i=1}^N x_i prod_{i=1}^N x_i
30 乘积运算 Product (force textstyle) ∏i=1Nxitextstyle prod_{i=1}^N x_i textstyle prod_{i=1}^N x_i
31 副乘运算 Coproduct ∐i=1Nxicoprod_{i=1}^N x_i coprod_{i=1}^N x_i
32 副乘运算 Coproduct (force textstyle) ∐i=1Nxitextstyle coprod_{i=1}^N x_i textstyle coprod_{i=1}^N x_i
33 极限 Limit lim⁡n→∞xnlim_{n to infty}x_n lim_{n to infty}x_n
34 极限 Limit (force textstyle) lim⁡n→∞xntextstyle lim_{n to infty}x_n textstyle lim_{n to infty}x_n
35 积分 Integral ∫13e3/xx2 dxintlimits_{1}{3}frac{e3/x}{x^2}, dx intlimits_{1}{3}frac{e3/x}{x^2}, dx
36 积分 Integral (alternative limits style) ∫13e3/xx2 dxint_{1}{3}frac{e3/x}{x^2}, dx int_{1}{3}frac{e3/x}{x^2}, dx
37 积分 Integral (force textstyle) ∫−NNexdxtextstyle intlimits_{-N}^{N} e^x dx textstyle intlimits_{-N}^{N} e^x dx
38 积分 Integral (force textstyle, alternative limits style) ∫−NNexdxtextstyle int_{-N}^{N} e^x dx textstyle int_{-N}^{N} e^x dx
39 双重积分 Double integral ∬Ddx dyiintlimits_D dx,dy iintlimits_D dx,dy
40 三重积分 Triple integral ∭Edx dy dziiintlimits_E dx,dy,dz iiintlimits_E dx,dy,dz
41 四重积分 Quadruple integral iiiintlimits_F dx,dy,dz,dt iiiintlimits_F dx,dy,dz,dt
42 路径积分 Line or path integral ∫(x,y)∈Cx3 dx+4y2 dyint_{(x,y)in C} x^3, dx + 4y^2, dy int_{(x,y)in C} x^3, dx + 4y^2, dy
43 环路积分 Closed line or path integral ∮(x,y)∈Cx3 dx+4y2 dyoint_{(x,y)in C} x^3, dx + 4y^2, dy oint_{(x,y)in C} x^3, dx + 4y^2, dy
44 交集 Intersections ⋂i=1nEibigcap_{i=1}^n E_i bigcap_{i=1}^n E_i
45 并集 Unions ⋃i=1nEibigcup_{i=1}^n E_i bigcup_{i=1}^n E_i

矩阵与多行列式 Matrices & Multilines

编号 类型 样式 LaTeX
1 二项式系数 Binomial coefficients (nk)binom{n}{k} binom{n}{k}
2 小型二项式系数 Small binomial coefficients (force textstyle) (nk)tbinom{n}{k} tbinom{n}{k}
3 大型二项式系数 Large (normal) binomial coefficients (force displaystyle) (nk)dbinom{n}{k} dbinom{n}{k}
4 矩阵1 Matrices xyzvbegin{matrix} x & y \ z & v end{matrix} begin{matrix} x & y z & v end{matrix}
5 矩阵2 Matrices ∣xyzv∣begin{vmatrix} x & y \ z & v end{vmatrix} begin{vmatrix} x & y z & v end{vmatrix}
6 矩阵3 Matrices ∥xyzv∥begin{Vmatrix} x & y \ z & v end{Vmatrix} begin{Vmatrix} x & y z & v end{Vmatrix}
7 矩阵4 Matrices [0⋯0⋮⋱⋮0⋯0]begin{bmatrix} 0 & cdots & 0 \ vdots & ddots & vdots \ 0 & cdots & 0 end{bmatrix} begin{bmatrix} 0 & cdots & 0 vdots & ddots & vdots 0 & cdots & 0 end{bmatrix}
8 矩阵5 Matrices {xyzv}begin{Bmatrix} x & y \ z & v end{Bmatrix} begin{Bmatrix} x & y z & v end{Bmatrix}
9 矩阵6 Matrices (xyzv)begin{pmatrix} x & y \ z & v end{pmatrix} begin{pmatrix} x & y z & v end{pmatrix}
10 矩阵7 Matrices (abcd)bigl( begin{smallmatrix} a&b\ c&d end{smallmatrix} bigr) bigl( begin{smallmatrix}
a&b
c&d
end{smallmatrix} bigr)
11 条件定义 Case distinctions f(n)={n/2,if n is even3n+1,if n is oddf(n) = begin{cases} n/2, & text{if }ntext{ is even} \ 3n+1, & text{if }ntext{ is odd} end{cases} f(n) = begin{cases} n/2, & text{if }ntext{ is even} 3n+1, & text{if }ntext{ is odd} end{cases}
12 多行等式1 Multiline equations begin{align} f(x) & = (a+b)^2\ & = a^2+2ab+b^2 end{align} begin{align} f(x) & = (a+b)^2 & = a^2+2ab+b^2 end{align}
13 多行等式2 Multiline equations begin{alignat}{2} f(x) & = (a-b)^2 \ & = a^2-2ab+b^2 end{alignat} begin{alignat}{2} f(x) & = (a-b)^2 & = a^2-2ab+b^2 end{alignat}
14 多行等式3 Multiline equations z=af(x,y,z)=x+y+zbegin{array}{lcl} z & = & a \ f(x,y,z) & = & x + y + z end{array} begin{array}{lcl} z & = & a f(x,y,z) & = & x + y + z end{array}
15 多行等式4 Multiline equations z=af(x,y,z)=x+y+zbegin{array}{lcr} z & = & a \ f(x,y,z) & = & x + y + z end{array} $begin{array}{lcr} z & = & a f(x,y,z) & = & x + y + z end{array}
16 方程组 Simultaneous equations {3x+5y+z7x−2y+4z−6x+3y+2zbegin{cases} 3x + 5y + z \ 7x – 2y + 4z \ -6x + 3y + 2z end{cases} begin{cases} 3x + 5y + z 7x – 2y + 4z -6x + 3y + 2z end{cases}
17 数组 Arrays $begin{array}{ c c c } a & b & S hline 0 & 0 & 1 0 & 1 & 1 1 & 0 & 1 1 & 1 & 0 end{array}$ begin{array}{ | c | c | c | } a & b & S hline 0 & 0 & 1 0 & 1 & 1 1 & 0 & 1 1 & 1 & 0 end{array}

括号Brackets

编号 类型 样式 LaTeX
1 圆括号、小括号 Parentheses (ab)left ( frac{a}{b} right ) left ( frac{a}{b} right )
2 方括号、中括号 Brackets [ab][ab]left [ frac{a}{b} right ] quad left lbrack frac{a}{b} right rbrack left [ frac{a}{b} right ] quad left lbrack frac{a}{b} right rbrack
3 花括号、大括号 Braces {ab}{ab}left { frac{a}{b} right } quad left lbrace frac{a}{b} right rbrace left { frac{a}{b} right } quad left lbrace frac{a}{b} right rbrace
4 角括号 Angle brackets ⟨ab⟩left langle frac{a}{b} right rangle left langle frac{a}{b} right rangle
5 单竖线和双竖线 Bars and double bars $ frac{a}{b} frac{c}{d} $ |frac{a}{b}| ||frac{c}{d}||
6 取整函数与取顶函数 Floor and ceiling functions: ⌊ab⌋⌈cd⌉left lfloor frac{a}{b} right rfloor quad left lceil frac{c}{d} right rceil left lfloor frac{a}{b} right rfloor quad left lceil frac{c}{d} right rceil
7 斜线与反斜线 Slashes and backslashes /ableft / frac{a}{b} right backslash left / frac{a}{b} right backslash
8 上下箭头 Up, down, and up-down arrows ↑ab↓⇑ab⇓↕ab⇕left uparrow frac{a}{b} right downarrow quad left Uparrow frac{a}{b} right Downarrow quad left updownarrow frac{a}{b} right Updownarrow left uparrow frac{a}{b} right downarrow quad left Uparrow frac{a}{b} right Downarrow quad left updownarrow frac{a}{b} right Updownarrow
9 混合括号 Delimiters can be mixed,as long as left and right match $left [0,1 right ) left langle psi right $ left [ 0,1 right ) left langle psi right |
10 单侧括号,使用left. 和 right.(带有英文句号) AB}→Xleft. frac{A}{B} right } to X left. frac{A}{B} right } to X
11 括号的大小1 (((((… ]]]]]( bigl( Bigl( biggl( Biggl( dots Biggr] biggr] Bigr] bigr] ] ( bigl( Bigl( biggl( Biggl( dots Biggr] biggr] Bigr] bigr] ]
12 括号的大小2 ⌊⌊⌊⌊⌊⋯<br/>⌉⌉⌉⌉⌉lfloor bigllfloor Bigllfloor biggllfloor Biggllfloor dots<br/>Biggrrceil biggrrceil Bigrrceil bigrrceil rceil lfloor bigllfloor Bigllfloor biggllfloor Biggllfloor dots
Biggrrceil biggrrceil Bigrrceil bigrrceil rceil
13 括号的大小3 ↑↑↑↑↑⋯<br/>⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓uparrow biguparrow Biguparrow bigguparrow Bigguparrow dots<br/>BiggDownarrow biggDownarrow BigDownarrow bigDownarrow Downarrow uparrow biguparrow Biguparrow bigguparrow Bigguparrow dots
BiggDownarrow biggDownarrow BigDownarrow bigDownarrow Downarrow
14 括号的大小4 ↕↕↕↕↕⋯<br/>⇕⇕⇕⇕⇕updownarrow bigupdownarrow Bigupdownarrow biggupdownarrow Biggupdownarrow dots<br/>BiggUpdownarrow biggUpdownarrow BigUpdownarrow bigUpdownarrow Updownarrow updownarrow bigupdownarrow Bigupdownarrow biggupdownarrow Biggupdownarrow dots
BiggUpdownarrow biggUpdownarrow BigUpdownarrow bigUpdownarrow Updownarrow
15 括号的大小5 /////⋯<br/>/ big/ Big/ bigg/ Bigg/ dots<br/>Biggbackslash biggbackslash Bigbackslash bigbackslash backslash / big/ Big/ bigg/ Bigg/ dots
Biggbackslash biggbackslash Bigbackslash bigbackslash backslash

注意:在使用大括号的时候需要添加转义字符{}

空格与换行

关于空格的使用可以参考下表。

编号 样式 LaTeX 中文说明英文说明
1 aba qquad b a qquad b 双空格
2 aba quad b a quad b 单空格
3 a ba b a b 字符空格
4 a ba text{ } b a text{ } b 文本模式中的字符空格
5 a  ba;b a;b 大空格
6 a ba,b a,b 小空格
7 abab ab 极小空格(用于乘因子)
8 aba b a b 极小空格(用于区分其它语法)
9 abmathit{ab} mathit{ab} 没有空格(用于多字母变量)
10 a ⁣ba!b a!b 负空格

关于换行,使用一对\进行强制换行,看一个案例:

f(x,y)=a2+b2+2ab=(a+b)2f(x,y) = a^2+b^2+2ab \ =(a+b)^2

实际源码为:

$$f(x,y) = a^2+b^2+2ab \ =(a+b)^2$$
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